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  • 當前位置: 發現  >  雙語美文  > 正文

    雙節假期剛剛開始,各位應該已經在旅游的路上放飛自我了吧?

    去海邊耍有福建廣東廣西海南、西北一趟可觀長河落日大漠孤煙、行至中原又有至美秋景、游歷西南還能成都重慶貴陽昆明一路火鍋。

    玩遍中國這件事幾百年前就有人做到了。

    這人叫徐霞客。

    《南華早報》的文章評價他是 “one of a kind(獨一無二)”,30年行走中國。

    Xu Xiake was one of a kind, not least because he spent three decades on the road four centuries ago.

    徐霞客是那種獨一無二的人,400多年前,他就花了30年行走中國。

    他出生在江陰的一個富庶家庭,媽媽是少有的讀過書的女子。徐霞客科舉不順,便只能務農從商,后來覺得不是自己想做的事情,就開始游歷,聽起來頗有些“明朝后浪”的意思。

    Extremely unusually for those times, Xu’s mother was fully literate, and she encouraged her son to read voraciously from his father’s amply stocked library. But at the age of 15, Xu failed the imperial examinations, which were seen as a steppingstone to a respected position in the hierarchy. Initially disappointed, he seemed set to follow in his father’s footsteps as a farmer and merchant. Then wanderlust took hold.

    在那個時候很少見,徐霞客的媽媽是讀過書的,她還鼓勵自己的兒子多讀書,讀父親藏書閣里的書。15歲的時候,徐霞客科舉未中,那時候科舉可是進入官宦階層受人敬仰的道路。剛開始還很沮喪,他似乎只能走父親的老路,開始務農和經商。不過之后,愛玩的心就占了上風。

    他在游記里寫下當時媽媽對他說的話:“At home you’re like a fenced-in chicken or a harnessed pony. Go travel and show me paintings of the scenery you see.(豈令兒以藩中雉、轅下駒坐困為?第游名勝,歸袖圖一一示我。)”

    明朝商業活動頻繁,交通發達,但是徐霞客卻只喜歡走路旅行。他長得十分高大,有人形容他 “as nimble as an ape and sturdy as an ox(捷如青猿,健如黃犢)”。

    錢謙益也很詩意地形容過他旅游的狀態——“drifting with the water, floating with the wind(隨水漂流,與云同游)”。

    這么愛旅游,他都去過哪兒呢?

    幾乎每個省徐霞客都去過。那個年代,想想看。

    南京、黃山、西湖、東莞、洛陽、華山、泰山、武當山…… 這么看,他其實是個登山客。

    He strode to every province in China, taking in bustling cities such as Nanjing; the alpine scenery of Huangshan; West Lake, in Hangzhou; and Songshan Lake, in Dongguan; as well as Wuyishan, etc.

    他踏遍了中國的每個省。眼里看過南京這樣的繁華都市、黃山的高山奇景、杭州西湖、東莞松山湖、福建武夷山等等。

    路上艱難險阻也是不少,被打劫、生病、被人騙、走錯路……

    Xu was mugged on more than one occasion, frequently laid low by disease, swindled by unscrupulous landlords and traders, and often wandered for miles away from his route, having been misdirected or simply lost his bearings. Short of funds, he once traded a poetry recitation for a basket of mushrooms; on another occasion, he was reduced to bartering his clothes for food.

    徐霞客不止一次遭到搶劫,經常因疾病臥床,被無良的地主和商人所欺騙,還常常偏離路線、被指錯路或者干脆迷路。沒錢的時候,他給人讀詩,就為了換一籃子蘑菇;還有一次,他窘迫到拿自己的衣服來換吃的。

    明朝的景點亂收費,他也是看不下去的,糟糕的心情一定會寫進游記里。

    Entrance fees to famous grottoes were guaranteed to put Xu in a foul mood, likewise charges levied for using the rope ladders or bridges that led to them.

    有些著名的洞窟門口有人收費,徐霞客肯定會氣到不行。還有的時候,爬繩梯或者過橋去這些洞窟也會被人收過路費。

    徐霞客一生在路上,他的游記和他的知識一樣涵蓋面廣,是那個時代人的奇跡。

    His 600,000-word youji, or travelogue, which was eventually published in 1776, some 135 years after his death, is packed with a wealth of detail. Xu’s learning and keen powers of observation led him to comment knowledgeably on geography, hydrology, geology and botany.

    他60萬字的游記最終出版于1776年,也就是大約在他去世135年后。游記里充滿了豐富的細節。徐霞客的學識和敏銳的觀察力使他對地理、水文學、地質學和植物學發表的評論都十分有見地。

    《南華早報》評價徐霞客說:

    He was the archetypal happy wanderer, a trenchant and witty writer, and a scientist some way ahead of his time.

    他就是那種典型的快樂漫游者,又是一位言辭辛辣妙語連珠的作家,此外,還是一位領先時代的科學家。

    中國人游遍中國已然不易,古代外國人來華那就更需要勇氣了。

    意大利威尼斯人馬可·波羅就是大家熟知的旅行家。

    1271年得到了教皇的同意和資助后,17歲的馬可·波羅和父親還有叔叔踏上了絲綢之路,路上就花了四年時間。地中海、黑海、巴格達、波斯灣、伊朗、帕米爾高原、新疆、敦煌…… 學習他的路徑不亞于復習一部分世界地理。

    到了新疆,他就被喀什和和田的美景吸引,穿過塔克拉瑪干沙漠之后又去了敦煌,看了莫高窟。

    這簡直是一個西北十五天才能玩下來的團啊。

    They continued on their journey along the Hexi Corridor and reached Shangdu in Inner Mongolia (the summer palace of Kublai Khan) in 1275 AD. Kublai Khan gave them a hospitable reception there and took them to Dadu (now Beijing).

    他們在河西走廊上繼續旅途,不久就于 1275 年到達了內蒙古的上都(忽必烈的夏宮)。忽必烈在那里熱情地接待了他們,然后就帶著他們去了大都(今北京)。

    聰明如他,在華期間學會了漢語和蒙語,和忽必烈成了密友,被派出使了很多國家。

    回到意大利之后口述的游記被《國家地理》雜志評價為世界上第一部暢銷游記。換句話說,他就是中世紀的暢銷書作家。

    Marco Polo's odyssey spawned one of the world's first best sellers. Medieval audiences couldn’t get enough of Polo’s fascinating accounts of faraway lands, turning his book into a runaway success.

    馬可·波羅旅途中的艱苦跋涉使他創造了世界上最早的暢銷書之一。中世紀的讀者對波羅對遙遠土地的迷人描述愛得不行,他的游記很快就賣爆了。

    寫游記不是每個人都具備的技能,旅游還要寫東西恐怕會讓很多人想起小時候被日記、周記支配的恐懼。但如今,大家都可以拍Vlog了,上傳到社交網站,古代有暢銷游記作家,現在就是旅游大V博主。

    國慶去哪兒不重要,保持徐霞客和馬可·波羅的那種從探索中獲取快樂的態度才最重要。

    Vocabulary

    voracious [v??re???s] adj(對信息、知識)渴求的;求知欲強的

    wanderlust [?w?nd?l?st] n 漫游癖;旅行癖

    nimble [?n?mbl] adj 靈活的;敏捷的

    mug [m?ɡ] v 行兇搶劫;打劫

    swindle [?sw?ndl] v 詐騙;騙取

    unscrupulous [?n?skru?pj?l?s] adj 不道德的;不誠實的

    levy [?levi] v 征收;征(稅)

    hospitable [h??sp?t?bl] adj 好客的;熱情友好的;殷勤的

    spawn [sp??n] v 產卵;引發;引起;導致;造成

    runaway [?r?n?we?] adj 輕易的;迅速的;難以控制的

    trenchant [?trent??nt] adj (批評、言語等)尖銳的;有效的;鮮明的

    文章來源:China Daily

    Photo by CHUTTERSNAP on Unsplash

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